In Papua New Guinea (PNG), activities by the United States were highly visible in World War II, but have steadily declined ever since. Papua New Guinea is a megadiverse country.  Local Papuans, called Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels by the Australians, assisted and escorted injured Australian troops down the Kokoda trail.  Papua New Guinea is part of the Australasian realm, which also includes Australia, New Zealand, eastern Indonesia, and several Pacific island groups, including the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. The flora of New Guinea is a mixture of many tropical rainforest species with origins in Asia, together with typically Australasian flora. Such reversals of fortune and a revolving-door succession of prime ministers continue to characterize Papua New Guinea's national politics.  After World War II and the victory of the Allies, the two territories were combined into the Territory of Papua and New Guinea. The rugged terrain—including high mountain ranges and valleys, swamps and islands—and high cost of developing infrastructure, combined with other factors (including law and order problems in some centres and the system of customary land title) makes it difficult for outside developers.  It is the largest private-sector investment in the history of PNG. Education was in the hands of missionaries.  There are hundreds of ethnic groups indigenous to Papua New Guinea, the majority being from the group known as Papuans, whose ancestors arrived in the New Guinea region tens of thousands of years ago.  According to UNICEF, nearly half of reported rape victims are under 15 years old, and 13% are under 7 years old. Since its inception in 2013, the programme has developed a master's programme in renewable energy management at the University of Papua New Guinea and helped to establish a Centre of Renewable Energy at the same university. In 2011 there was a constitutional crisis between the parliament-elect Prime Minister, Peter O'Neill (voted into office by a large majority of MPs), and Sir Michael Somare, who was deemed by the supreme court to retain office. Davis Steven was appointed deputy prime minister. The main tasks of the Maritime Element are patrol of inshore waters and transport of the Land Element. There are four languages in Papua New Guinea with some statutory recognition: English, Tok Pisin, Hiri Motu, and, since 2015, sign language (which in practice means Papua New Guinean Sign Language). Guinea, in its turn, is etymologically derived from the Portuguese word Guiné. Candidates for members of parliament are voted upon when the prime minister asks the governor-general to call a national election, a maximum of five years after the previous national election.  The worst of the damage was centred around the Southern Highlands region. People of the highlands engage in colourful local rituals that are called "sing sings". The word papua is derived from an old local term of uncertain origin.  According to Marianna Torgovnick, writing in 1991, "The most fully documented instances of cannibalism as a social institution come from New Guinea, where head-hunting and ritual cannibalism survived, in certain isolated areas, into the Fifties, Sixties, and Seventies, and still leave traces within certain social groups. Is my passport valid to travel? These contacts were often with the help of Drybow/Dribu, a leader and spokesman of the wig–men, a most intelligent man of goodwill, with a quiet authority that brought forth friendly cooperation. 2010. The law underpinning the village courts is 'customary law'. As the most populous Pacific Island state (7.8 million: 2013 estimate), Papua New Guinea is important to peace and security in the Asia-Pacific region. Many of these people have been doers, not recorders of facts, with the result that our knowledge of the territory's exploration has not kept pace with the exploration itself.'. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. The difference in legal status meant that until 1949, Papua and New Guinea had entirely separate administrations, both controlled by Australia. , The Institute of National Affairs, a PNG independent policy think tank, provides a report on the business and investment environment of Papua New Guinea every five years, based upon a survey of large and small, local and overseas companies, highlighting law and order problems and corruption, as the worst impediments, followed by the poor state of transport, power and communications infrastructure. The Akmana Gold Prospecting Field Party made contact with many peoples they called: grass country people, head hunters, pygmies, wig–men, Kanakas, Poomani. New Guinea was basically a business venture. The modern state of Guinea did not come into existence until 1958, but the history of the area stretches back well before European colonization.  A report by ChildFund Australia, citing former Parliamentarian Dame Carol Kidu, claimed 50% of those seeking medical help after rape are under 16, 25% are under 12, and 10% are under 8. The Huli people were involved in extensive traveling, primarily for trade. . Matzke, R.H., Smith, J.G., and Foo, W.K., 1992, Iagifu/Hedinia Field, In Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade, 1978–1988, AAPG Memoir 54, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, James, P.; Nadarajah, Y.; Haive, K. and Stead, V. (2012). , Only some 3% of the land of Papua New Guinea is in private hands; this is privately held under 99-year state lease, or it is held by the State. , Vision 2050's medium-term priorities are:, According to Thomson Reuters' Web of Science, Papua New Guinea had the largest number of publications (110) among Pacific Island states in 2014, followed by Fiji (106).  The House of Assembly of Papua and New Guinea replaced the Legislative Council in 1963, and after elections on 15 February, opened on 8 June 1964. New Guinea" (Nueva Guinea) was the name coined by the Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez.In 1545, he noted the resemblance of the people to those he had earlier seen along the Guinea coast of Africa. Its design is that of a woven basket, a common feature of all groups and cultures in PNG. In early September 1942 Japanese marines attacked a strategic Royal Australian Air Force base at Milne Bay, near the eastern tip of Papua. Peter O'Neill emerged as Papua New Guinea's prime minister after the July 2012 election, and formed a government with Leo Dion, the former Governor of East New Britain Province, as deputy prime minister.  These societies and clans are explicitly acknowledged by the Papua New Guinea Constitution, which expresses the wish for "traditional villages and communities to remain as viable units of Papua New Guinean society" and protects their continuing importance to local and national community life. , The Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary has been troubled in recent years by infighting, political interference and corruption. The economy has a small formal sector, focused mainly on the export of those natural resources, and an informal sector, employing the majority of the population. 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